Environmental deprivation, poverty, childhood abuse, witnessing violence, and pandemics are just some of the factors that can impact both cognitive and social-emotional development in children. This workshop will explore the neural architecture of emotional behavior by examining various brain structures laying the foundation for higher level social skill functioning. Specific biological factors related to the development of social competence and emotional self-regulation will be explored. Particular focus will be on factors leading to emotional dysregulation and the neurobiological underpinnings of stress and trauma on the brain. Schools can enhance emotional wellness in children through early prevention efforts, appropriate assessment strategies, teaching collaborative problem solving, and developing a nurturing school climate to foster emotional growth for all children. Specific assessment strategies, innovative screening tools, and targeted classroom interventions will be shared.